Micromelic Dysplasia Panel
Test code: MA1901
The Blueprint Genetics Micromelic Dysplasia Panel is a 24 gene test for genetic diagnostics of patients with clinical suspicion of acromesomelic dysplasia, cranioectodermal dysplasia, Robinow syndrome or Weill-Marchesani syndrome.
This panel covers several skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) charachterized by micromelic dwarfism (abnormally short or small limbs). Most of these dysplasias are very rare. For differential diagnosis, the most common form of chondrodysplasia, achondroplasia, is also included to the panel. This panel is part of the Comprehensive Skeletal / Malformation Syndrome panel.
About Micromelic Dysplasia
Acromesomelic dysplasia is an autosomal recessively inherited group of rare disorders characterized by severe dwarfism, limb abnormalities, normal facial appearance and intelligence. Mutations in different genes cause three different types of acromesomelic dysplasia: Grebe, Hunter-Thomson and Maroteaux types.
Robinow syndrome is characterized by limb shortening and abnormalities of the head, face and external genitalia. The clinical signs are generally milder in more common autosomal dominant form of Robinow syndrome than in the autosomal recessive form. In the presence of rib fusions, the recessive form of the syndrome should be considered.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia is a rare developmental disorder characterized by congenital skeletal and ectodermal defects associated with dysmorphic features, nephronophthisis, hepatic fibrosis and ocular anomalies (mainly retinitis pigmentosa). Cranioectodermal dysplasia is a heterogenous desease belonging to the ciliopathy group of diseases and is caused by mutations in the IFT122, IFT43, WDR19 and WDR35 genes. In most cases, the mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome is a rare condition characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and characteristic eye abnormalities including microspherophakia, ectopia of the lens, severe myopia, and glaucoma. Both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms exist.
Achondroplasia is characterized by rhizomelia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, brachydactyly, and macrocephaly with frontal bossing and midface hypoplasia. Estimated incidence is at about 1/25,000 live births worldwide. Achondroplasia is due to mutations in the FGFR3 gene. Inheritance is autosomal dominant so genetic counseling is warranted. Achondroplasia is one of the congenital conditions with similar presentations, such as multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda, achondrogenesis, osteopetrosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia.
Results in 3-4 weeks. We do not offer a maternal cell contamination (MCC) test at the moment. We offer prenatal testing only for cases where the maternal cell contamination studies (MCC) are done by a local genetic laboratory. Read more.
|BMPR1B||Acromesomelic dysplasia, Demirhan, Brachydactyly C/Symphalangism-like pheno, Brachydactyly type A2||AD/AR||11||13|
|EXT1||Multiple cartilagenious exostoses 1||AD||28||479|
|FBN1||MASS syndrome, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Acromicric dysplasia, Geleophysic dysplasia, Weill-Marchesani syndrome||AD||519||2056|
|FGFR3||Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome, Muenke syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans, Camptodactyly, tall stature, and hearing loss (CATSHL) syndrome, Achondroplasia, Hypochondroplasia, Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1, Thanatophoric dysplasia type 2, SADDAN||AD/AR||47||68|
|GDF5||Multiple synostoses syndrome, Fibular hypoplasia and complex brachydactyly, Acromesomelic dysplasia, Hunter-Thompson, Symphalangism, proximal, Chondrodysplasia, Brachydactyly type A2, Brachydactyly type C, Grebe dysplasia||AD/AR||22||52|
|GNAS||McCune-Albright syndrome, Progressive osseous heteroplasia, Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy||AD||45||257|
|IFT122*||Sensenbrenner syndrome, Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 1, Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 2||AR||9||13|
|IFT140||Short -rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (ATD; Jeune)||AR||14||46|
|IHH||Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia, Brachydactyly, Syndactyly type Lueken||AD/AR||11||17|
|LIFR||Stuve-Wiedemann dysplasia, Schwartz-Jampel type 2 syndrome||AR||9||28|
|LTBP2||Weill-Marchesani syndrome, Microspherophakia and/or megalocornea, with ectopia lentis and with or without secondary glaucoma, Glaucoma, primary congenital||AR||21||23|
|NPR2||Acromesomelic dysplasia type Maroteaux, Epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, Miura, Short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities||AD/AR||14||61|
|PRKAR1A||Myxoma, intracardiac, Acrodysostosis, Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, Carney complex||AD||50||173|
|ROR2||Robinow syndrome recessive type, Brachydactyly type B||AD/AR||18||37|
|SHOX*||Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, Langer mesomelic dysplasia, Short stature||XL/PAR||23||366|
|SMAD4||Juvenile polyposis/hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome, Polyposis, juvenile intestinal, Myhre dysplasia, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia||AD||119||128|
|SOX9||Campomelic dysplasia, 46,XY sex reversal, Brachydactyly with anonychia (Cooks syndrome)||AD||24||135|
|TRPS1||Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1, Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 3||AD||18||127|
|WDR19||Retinitis pigmentosa, Nephronophthisis, Short -rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, Senior-Loken syndrome, Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 1, Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 2, Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (ATD; Jeune)||AD/AR||16||25|
|WDR35||Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 1, Cranioectodermal dysplasia (Levin-Sensenbrenner) type 2, Short rib-polydactyly syndrome type 5||AR||15||24|
- * Some regions of the gene are duplicated in the genome leading to limited sensitivity within the regions. Thus, low-quality variants are filtered out from the duplicated regions and only high-quality variants confirmed by other methods are reported out. Read more.
Gene, refers to HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked (XL); ClinVar, refers to a number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/); HGMD, refers to a number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD, http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/). The list of associated (gene specific) phenotypes are generated from CDG (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/CGD/) or Orphanet (http://www.orpha.net/) databases.
Blueprint Genetics offers a comprehensive micromelic dysplasia panel that covers classical genes associated with acromesomelic dysplasia, cranioectodermal dysplasia, Robinow syndrome and Weill-Marchesani syndrome. The genes are carefully selected based on the existing scientific evidence, our experience and most current mutation databases. Candidate genes are excluded from this first-line diagnostic test. The test does not recognise balanced translocations or complex inversions, and it may not detect low-level mosaicism. The test should not be used for analysis of sequence repeats or for diagnosis of disorders caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA.
Please see our latest validation report showing sensitivity and specificity for SNPs and indels, sequencing depth, % of the nucleotides reached at least 15x coverage etc. If the Panel is not present in the report, data will be published when the Panel becomes available for ordering. Analytical validation is a continuous process at Blueprint Genetics. Our mission is to improve the quality of the sequencing process and each modification is followed by our standardized validation process. All the Panels available for ordering have sensitivity and specificity higher than > 0.99 to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and a high sensitivity for indels ranging 1-19 bp. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the used assay, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive for a specific mutation profile. Detection limit for Del/Dup analysis varies through the genome from one to six exon Del/Dups depending on exon size, sequencing coverage and sequence content.
The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. The highest relevance in the reported variants is achieved through elimination of false positive findings based on variability data for thousands of publicly available human reference sequences and validation against our in-house curated mutation database as well as the most current and relevant human mutation databases. Reference databases currently used are the 1000 Genomes Project (http://www.1000genomes.org), the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP; http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS), the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC; http://exac.broadinstitute.org), ClinVar database of genotype-phenotype associations (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar) and the Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk). The consequence of variants in coding and splice regions are estimated using the following in silico variant prediction tools: SIFT (http://sift.jcvi.org), Polyphen (http://genetics.bwh.harvard.edu/pph2/), and Mutation Taster (http://www.mutationtaster.org).
Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, the customer can access specific details of the analysis of the patient. This includes coverage and quality specifications and other relevant information on the analysis. This represents our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where the customer gains easy access to crucial details of the analysis process.
In addition to our cutting-edge patented sequencing technology and proprietary bioinformatics pipeline, we also provide the customers with the best-informed clinical report on the market. Clinical interpretation requires fundamental clinical and genetic understanding. At Blueprint Genetics our geneticists and clinicians, who together evaluate the results from the sequence analysis pipeline in the context of phenotype information provided in the requisition form, prepare the clinical statement. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals, even without training in genetics.
Variants reported in the statement are always classified using the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Scheme modified from the ACMG guidelines (Richards et al. 2015), which has been developed by evaluating existing literature, databases and with thousands of clinical cases analyzed in our laboratory. Variant classification forms the corner stone of clinical interpretation and following patient management decisions. Our statement also includes allele frequencies in reference populations and in silico predictions. We also provide PubMed IDs to the articles or submission numbers to public databases that have been used in the interpretation of the detected variants. In our conclusion, we summarize all the existing information and provide our rationale for the classification of the variant.
A final component of the analysis is the Sanger confirmation of the variants classified as likely pathogenic or pathogenic. This does not only bring confidence to the results obtained by our NGS solution but establishes the mutation specific test for family members. Sanger sequencing is also used occasionally with other variants reported in the statement. In the case of variant of uncertain significance (VUS) we do not recommend risk stratification based on the genetic finding. Furthermore, in the case VUS we do not recommend use of genetic information in patient management or genetic counseling. For some cases Blueprint Genetics offers a special free of charge service to investigate the role of identified VUS.
We constantly follow genetic literature adapting new relevant information and findings to our diagnostics. Relevant novel discoveries can be rapidly translated and adopted into our diagnostics without delay. These processes ensure that our diagnostic panels and clinical statements remain the most up-to-date on the market.
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Choose an analysis method
ICD & CPT codes
Commonly used ICD-10 codes when ordering the Micromelic Dysplasia Panel
Accepted sample types
- EDTA blood, min. 1 ml
- Purified DNA, min. 5μg
- Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit)
Label the sample tube with your patient’s name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.
Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.